Anatomy is a division of natural science which study the structure and function of animals and their parts. In-depth knowledge of the structure of an animal communicates a lot of information about the functions it can perform. Understanding the anatomy of animals will help people manage and care for their animals.
All living creatures, except basic single-celled creatures, are made of different parts which allow them to function. The biggest percentage of an animal’s body is made up of water, cells and a protecting structure is known as a skeleton that is made of bone or a shell to protect it. Several processes occur consistently in an animal’s body such as digestion and circulation.
Animals consist of different body systems, each responsible for a specific job to keep the animal functioning well. The skeletal system is the heaviest body system found in animals, not all animals consist of a skeletal system. The muscular system is just as heavy and connects muscles to the brain so that all bodily parts knows what to do. The circulatory system pump blood from the heart to the rest of the body, while the digestive system breaks down food and removes nutrients from it, nutrients is then turned into energy used by the body. The respiratory system is responsible for the breathing of animals.
Several animals have hard structures inside their bodies, known as endoskeleton for support purposes or outside their bodies, known as an exoskeleton for support and protection. Other animals like jellyfish do not consist of a hard support system, but thin layers of cells known as a membrane support their bodies. Skeletons keep animal bodies stable and in shape. Large land animals contain extra bone plates that act as a skeleton to support the animal’s weight.
Similar bodily cells inside the animal form into groups which is organized into tissue, numerous tissues form different organs in the body. Animal bodies consist of different organs, each with a specific task. Linked organs form an organ system, responsible for vital processes in the animal’s body. The heart pumps blood around the body or skin of an animal to protect its subtle inside from the outdoors.
Animals require oxygen in order to survive, many animals get oxygen by breathing air into their lungs that is passed through the body, as a result, carbon dioxide is exhaled. Respiratory systems differ from one animal species to another. Birds and mammals are known to process oxygen different than other animal species. Other animals do not have lungs and use additional methods to get oxygen inside their bodies. Fish use gills to extract oxygen from their surrounding waters. Gills are known as thin, feathery flaps, drawing blood to the surface of the skin, which allow oxygen to pass into it. Frog species use their pores in their skin to breathe through.
The utmost of animal species consists of five senses such as smell, sight, taste, touch, and balance. Certain species have more sensitive senses than others, for example, a mole, they live under the ground and can hardly see, while an eagle spot prey from miles away. Other animal species such as dolphins, whales, and bats have developed a “sixth sense”, known as echolocation, which is an advanced form of hearing which allows them to “see” their surrounds by listening and analyzing the sounds that reflect off objects. Fish sense their environment using a lateral line system, which notices fluctuations in water pressure, allowing them to feel other animals that move near them in the water. Snakes make use of an exceptional organ called Jacobsen’s organ, in order to smell. The snake’s tongue gathers chemicals from the air and pushes it against the organ which is positioned in the top part of its mouth.
Locomotion is a term used for any or a variety of techniques animals use to move from one location to another. Organisms can only be called animals if they have the ability to move freely. Movement is initiated by the contraction of muscles inside the animal’s body. Numerous ways of movements are witnessed amongst animals. While humans walk, cheetahs run, fish swim, ducks and geese gaddle from one place to another, birds fly and insects use hopping or flying. Several animal species depend on their environment for transportation, known as passive locomotion. A jellyfish sail, spiders knit and beetles roll. Animals move for numerous reasons such as to find food, a mate or an appropriate microhabitat. Animal’s ability to move is vital for survival.
Four types of environments determine animal movements, movement in water is known as aquatic movement, while terrestrial and arboreal movement is witnessed on the ground or other surfaces. Underground movements are known as a fossorial and aerial movement in the air. Other animals such as diving birds make use of more than one type of medium, for they are semi-aquatic. Normally the surface they move on ease their method of locomotion.
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